This lesson is all about Pronoun in English Grammar.
Definition of Pronoun:
A word that replaces, relates a noun or equivalent is called Pronoun. It may also interrogate, distribute, demonstrate or reciprocate whole sense of a sentence, acting either as a subject or as an object.
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Classification of Pronouns with Examples:
There are 10 types of Pronoun, and those are:
- Personal Pronoun.
- Impersonal Pronoun.
- Demonstrative Pronoun.
- Distributive Pronoun.
- Indefinite Pronoun.
- Reciprocal Pronoun.
- Reflexive and Emphatic Pronoun.
- Relative Pronoun.
- Interrogative Pronoun.
- Possessive Pronoun.
It indicates any person acting as a subject or an object [Here you can learn what is subject and object of a sentence by Lexico.com] on the other word Personal Pronouns words used in place of nouns referring to persons.
- I, you, he, she, it, they.
It indicates mainly non-living things.
These words are used for nouns to point out the object.
For example, this, that, these, those, such, so, etc.
- This is my book.
- That is Joe’s house.
It distributes the sense of the subject or object.
For example, Each, either, neither, every, none, anyone.
- You can take either room.
- You can talk to each boy.
- Neither of his legs is defective.
It signifies the sense of the subject or object indefinitely without any specification, used for nouns in vague and general meaning.
For example everybody, one, any, some, none, all, nobody, somebody, etc.
It reciprocates between two or more subjects and points out the mutual relationship.
For example, each-other, one-another.
- Both of the sisters love each other.
- Indians should not fight with one another.
Reflexive and Emphatic Pronoun:
Reflexive pronoun makes an extra emphasis on the main subject and is constructed with ‘self’ word, it is used as forms of personal pronouns for emphasis.
For example, myself, yourself, herself, themselves, ourselves.
It relates the subject or objects with another clause or part of a sentence, it is used for nouns to express functions relating to ‘who, which, whose, that, whenever, whatever, whichever, whom,’ etc.
- The man who has just entered my room.
- The mobile that I bought is very costly.
It makes sense of interrogation or a question to get an answer to that question, it is acting as subject or an object, used for nouns to ask the questions.
For example, who, what, where, which, whose, whom.
- Who took my mobile?
- Whose shirt is this?
- What are you doing here?
It signifies a possession over any other person or thing.
For example, mine, yours, ours, theirs, etc.
Placement of pronouns according to having different persons –
If there are two or more than two pronouns, having two or more than two persons (First person, second person and third person) within the sentence then their placement should be as follows:
In Singular Case:
Having positive or a general sense of application- 2-3-1.
For example, you, he and I are going to a party next Friday.
Having negative sense- 1-2-3/1-3-2.
For example, I, you and he/I, he and you will be responsible for the failure of the machine.
Similarly in Plural Case:
Having any sense of application either positive or negative the sequence is always 1-2-3.
For example, We, you, and they are going to a picnic today.
Some Important Points to Remember about Pronoun:
- They are some verbs which do not allow any reflexive pronoun. Such verbs are kept, turn, qualify, move, hide.
- If a sentence consists of a pronoun or a noun that takes “to be” as the main verb then we use nominative case of a pronoun. For example, it was I who called you last night.
- In case of comparative degree, after the word ‘than’ we use the nominative case of a pronoun. For example, she performed better than I was.
- We use objective case of pronoun after the word ‘let’. For example, let him and I do the work together.
- If we use ‘each’ or ‘every’ in a sentence, then the auxiliary verb [External Link] should be in a singular form. For example, every man, woman, and child is now aware of this.
- When an action is reflected that towards the subject itself, then reflexive pronouns are used. Some verbs which allow reflexive pronouns are- avail, adapt, enjoy, resign, etc. For example, We should adapt our self to every circumstance in our lives.
- If a sentence expresses positivity or good sense and all the personal pronouns are used in the same sentence in a singular form, then the order of those personal pronouns will be the second person, third person and first person (231).
For example, You, he and I have attended the meeting today.
- If a sentence expresses negativity or flaw, all the three personal pronouns are used in the same sentence in a singular form, then the order of those personal pronouns will be the first, second and third person (123). For example, I, you and he did not help the poor man.
Positive + Singular: 231.
Negative + singular: 123.
Positive + Plural: 123.
Negative + Plural: 123.
- ‘Either-or’ and ‘neither-nor’ are used only to refer two things or person.
- ‘Everyone, everybody’ is used with the singular form of the third-person possessive pronoun.
For example, Everyone received his prize on the second of the month.
- ‘Each’, ‘Every’ is followed by any noun then the auxiliary verb will be used in a singular form.
For example, Every man, woman, and child is now aware of this.
- After the word ‘let’ objective case of a pronoun is used.
For example, let him and me do the work together.
- ‘When’ is used for objective case and ‘who’ is used for the subjective case.
Exercise on Pronoun:
Put correct pronouns in the blank.
- He is older than _ (me, I).
- The boy is known to him and _ (I, me).
- All the girls except _ were present there (her, she).
- It was _ that did it (I, me).
- He came here to see you and _ (me, I).
Fill up the blanks with demonstrative pronouns.
- The boys taller than _.
- _ is a lame excuse.
- He said _.
- His works are like _ of his brother.
- His house is bigger than _ of John.
Join the following sentences with relative pronouns.
- I know the boy. he did it.
- I helped the man. their house was burnt down.
- A boy came to me. his name I do not know.
- Our headmaster is respected by all. there he goes.
- This is a nice pen. I bought it yesterday.
Fill in the blanks with interrogative pronouns.
- _ do you see there?
- _ of these pens is yours?
- With_ did you go there?
- _ will he vote for?
- _ is to be blamed for this?
A Must Watch Video on Noun:
Now I Would Love to Hear from You
There you have it: The complete guide on Pronoun.
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References [External Links]:
- Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns | Definition, Examples
- Personal pronouns | LearnEnglish – British Council