Hello readers, in this lesson of Parts of Speech we are going to study what is a Conjunction in English grammar. So today we first learn what is a conjunction? and types of Conjunction beside examples and some important notes about rules of conjunction for use in a sentence. To download the PDF copy of this lesson, please find the downloadable link attached below this article.
Conjunction which connects two or more than two words, phrases, clauses or sentences. For example, Ram and Sam are best friends here in this sentence ‘and’ act as conjunction. Similarly, Wait here until I return.
Types of Conjunction:
Conjunctions are three types:
Again, coordinating Conjunctions are four types:
Cumulative – and, both … and, as well as.
Alternative- nor, either … or, or, neither … nor.
Adversative- but, yet, still.
Illative- so, therefore.
And subordinating conjunctions are eight types:
Time- when, whenever, till, until, after, before.
Place- where, wherever.
Purpose- Provided that, so that, lest … should.
Reason/Cause- as, since, because.
Result/effect- so … that, such … that.
Condition- if, unless, supposing, provided.
Contrast- though, although.
Comparison- than, as, as … as, so as, as if, as though.
This type of conjunctions is used in pairs and they connect two similar and balanced clauses, words or phrases.
Some Paired Conjunctions are:
Not only…but also.
Important Points on Conjunctions:
If a sentence has no/not/never in it, the clause connects with ‘or’ instead of ‘nor’. For example, John has no relation nor friend who can help him (here replace ‘nor’ with ‘or’).
Until or unless are negative conjunctions, so no negative words like ‘not’ or ‘never’ is used with them. For example, I shall faith unless you do not help. (No use of ‘do not’).
Use past conditional tense (were) after ‘if’/ ‘as’. For example, He behaves as if he was a king (was must be replaced by were).
If a sentence begins with ‘The reason is’ or ‘The reason why’, the subordinate clause[external link] should begin with ‘that’ instead of ‘because’, ‘due to’. For example, the reason is because he did not study. (here no need to use ‘because’).
‘And’ joins words of equal value and lays equal emphasis on both of them. For example, Ram and Shyam are good boys, here good is point towards Ram, Shyam both so we use and.
‘As well as’ join words of equal value but lays emphasis on the first subject, for example, let me take a sentence- The captain, as well as the other players, deserve the praise. Here in this sentence captain is more spotted than other players that’s why I use ‘as wellas‘ as a preposition.
We cannot use ‘both’ in a negative sentence, for example, if you write both Ram and Shyam did not go. It is wrong, you should write ‘Neither Ram nor Shyam went.
‘Or’, ‘otherwise’ denotes choice, ‘or’ is for normal sense and ‘otherwise is for threat sense. Let me see you an example, Do or die (in the normal sense). Do it otherwise I will kill you. (If there is a threat, Conjunction become ‘otherwise’).
‘Yet’ is used for trivial contradiction, ‘But’ is used for moderate contradiction and ‘Still’ is used when the contradiction is extreme. So, let me show you all the example of this, (1) He is good at studies yet he could not pass. (2) He is poor but honest. (3) He is a dangerous man still I want to meet him.
‘So’, ‘therefore’ establishes the relation between work and result, based on the degree of the sentence, for normal cases we use ‘so’, and for important cases, we use ‘therefore’. Let me show you with examples. (1) I woke up late so I could not reach on time. It is for a normal and simple case. (2) It rains heavily, therefore, there were floods all around. Here flood is an important case.
‘For’ joins work and cause. For example, He helps me for he is a generous person.
If there is ‘else’ in a sentence than the conjunction is always ‘but’. For example, call him anything else but a fool. (Here else but is used as a preposition).
If there is ‘other’ in a sentence than the conjunction is we use is ‘that’, But if ‘none’ or ‘nothing’ is present in a sentence the conjunction is ‘but’ (then it uses as a preposition).
Remember when adding conjunction, the balance of the sentence should be correct. For example, if we use ‘not only – but also’, let me show you-Not only he beat me but also abused me. Here ‘but also’ is placed before the verb abused, so if you adding conjunction ‘not only’, it should add before the verb ‘beat’, not before a subject. So here the correct form is – He not only beat me but also abused me.
This is some important rules you have to learn about, by the way, there are several rules on it, you have to practice this regularly and find out the rules by yourself, Although I have mentioned enough important rules on it so don’t worry it will help you a lot.
Next, I give you some of the examples of conjunction in a sentence for your better understanding.