Hello readers, in this lesson of Parts of Speech we are going to study what is a Conjunction in English grammar. So today we first learn what is a conjunction? and types of Conjunction beside examples and some important notes about rules of conjunction for use in a sentence. To download the PDF copy of this lesson, please find the downloadable link attached below this article.
Conjunction which connects two or more than two words, phrases, clauses or sentences. For example, Ram and Sam are best friends here in this sentence ‘and’ act as conjunction. Similarly, Wait here until I return.
Types of Conjunction:
Conjunctions are three types:
- Coordinating Conjunction.
- Subordinating Conjunction.
- Correlative Conjunction.
Again, coordinating Conjunctions are four types:
- Cumulative – and, both … and, as well as.
- Alternative- nor, either … or, or, neither … nor.
- Adversative- but, yet, still.
- Illative- so, therefore.
And subordinating conjunctions are eight types:
- Time- when, whenever, till, until, after, before.
- Place- where, wherever.
- Purpose- Provided that, so that, lest … should.
- Reason/Cause- as, since, because.
- Result/effect- so … that, such … that.
- Condition- if, unless, supposing, provided.
- Contrast- though, although.
- Comparison- than, as, as … as, so as, as if, as though.
This type of conjunctions is used in pairs and they connect two similar and balanced clauses, words or phrases.
Some Paired Conjunctions are:
- No sooner…than.
- As much…as.
- So much…as.
- Whether…or not.
- Not only…but also.
Important Points on Conjunctions:
- If a sentence has no/not/never in it, the clause connects with ‘or’ instead of ‘nor’. For example, John has no relation
norfriend who can help him (here replace ‘nor’ with ‘or’).
- Until or unless are negative conjunctions, so no negative words like ‘not’ or ‘never’ is used with them. For example, I shall faith unless you
do not help. (No use of ‘do not’).
- Use past conditional tense (were) after ‘if’/ ‘as’. For example, He behaves as if he
wasa king (was must be replaced by were).
- If a sentence begins with ‘The reason is’ or ‘The reason why’, the subordinate clause [external link] should begin with ‘that’ instead of ‘because’, ‘due to’. For example, the reason is
becausehe did not study. (here no need to use ‘because’).
- ‘And’ joins words of equal value and lays equal emphasis on both of them. For example, Ram and Shyam are good boys, here good is point towards Ram, Shyam both so we use and.
- ‘As well as’ join words of equal value but lays emphasis on the first subject, for example, let me take a sentence– The captain, as well as the other players, deserve the praise. Here in this sentence captain is more spotted than other players that’s why I use ‘as well as‘ as a preposition.
- We cannot use ‘both’ in a negative sentence, for example, if you write both Ram and Shyam did not go. It is wrong, you should write ‘Neither Ram nor Shyam went.
- ‘Or’, ‘otherwise’ denotes choice, ‘or’ is for normal sense and ‘otherwise is for threat sense. Let me see you an example, Do or die (in the normal sense). Do it otherwise I will kill you. (If there is a threat, Conjunction become ‘otherwise’).
- ‘Yet’ is used for trivial contradiction, ‘But’ is used for moderate contradiction and ‘Still’ is used when the contradiction is extreme. So, let me show you all the example of this, (1) He is good at studies yet he could not pass. (2) He is poor but honest. (3) He is a dangerous man still I want to meet him.
- ‘So’, ‘therefore’ establishes the relation between work and result, based on the degree of the sentence, for normal cases we use ‘so’, and for important cases, we use ‘therefore’. Let me show you with examples. (1) I woke up late so I could not reach on time. It is for a normal and simple case. (2) It rains heavily, therefore, there were floods all around. Here flood is an important case.
- ‘For’ joins work and cause. For example, He helps me for he is a generous person.
- If there is ‘else’ in a sentence than the conjunction is always ‘but’. For example, call him anything else but a fool. (Here else but is used as a preposition).
- If there is ‘other’ in a sentence than the conjunction is we use is ‘that’, But if ‘none’ or ‘nothing’ is present in a sentence the conjunction is ‘but’ (then it uses as a preposition).
- Remember when adding conjunction, the balance of the sentence should be correct. For example, if we use ‘not only – but also’, let me show you-
Not onlyhe beat me but also abused me. Here ‘but also’ is placed before the verb abused, so if you adding conjunction ‘not only’, it should add before the verb ‘beat’, not before a subject. So here the correct form is – He not only beat me but also abused me.
This is some important rules you have to learn about, by the way, there are several rules on it, you have to practice this regularly and find out the rules by yourself, Although I have mentioned enough important rules on it so don’t worry it will help you a lot.
Next, I give you some of the examples of conjunction in a sentence for your better understanding.
Cumulative or Copulative:
- I read and you write.
- Both he and his sister will go.
- He, as well as his brother, will go.
- He was there and you also.
Alternative or Disjunctive:
- Either Ram or his brother will go.
- Neither he nor I own this game.
- Learn or you will fail.
- He is poor but honest.
- You are guilty however I pardon you for now.
- You may come only make no noise.
- He did not work hard therefore he failed.
- He came after I had left.
- I have not seen him since I came.
Cause / reason:
- He cannot work because he is ill.
- I work hard lest I should fail.
- Sam wrote to us that he would come.
- I shall go if you come.
- I shall teach you provided you obey me.
- He is such an idiot that I cannot rely on him.
- She is taller than me.
- As you saw so shall you reap.
- Whatever you may say I do not trust you.
For more examples read my another article on Conjunction: 10+ example of Conjunction in Sentence
A Must Watch Video on Conjunction:
Exercise on Conjunction:
Fill in the blanks with suitable conjunctions
- Be just _ fear not.
- Make haste _ you will be late.
- Live well _ you may die well.
- He fled _ he should be killed.
- I don’t know _ he will be there.
- He left _ I had to come.
- Time _ tide wait for none.
- I do not know _ he was here.
- He is poor _ honest.
- Beware _ you should fall.
If you like our lesson on Conjunction, do share it in your social handling and with your friends. And also comment down answers of the above questions, I will check and correct those for you.
References [External Links]:
- 8 PARTS OF SPEECH [Video Youtube]
- Parts of Speech: Definition and Useful Examples in English